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Tibetansk Buddhism

Vad är en "Geshe" - grad ?

2015-10-06 13:35 #0 av: Fredrik1

En Geshe är en högt utbildad munk inom Gelugpa-traditionen där personen studerat fem huvudtexter under minst 17 år. För att visa en Geshe respekt brukar man tilltala denne
Geshe- la.

"Among the sects of Tibetan Buddhism, the Gelug school places the most rigorous emphasis on philosophical study, administrating a scholastic degree in large monastic universities that can take two decades or more to complete: the “Geshe” degree. These universities are modeled after the Indian monastic institutions of the past, such as the historic Nalanda and Vikramasila universities, which gave rise to a tradition of philosophical rigor and debating prowess as the foundation for deeper realization that has defined the Gelug school for centuries.

Contributor Geshe Thubten Wangchen gives a brief introduction to this hallowed degree …

The title “Geshe” is not just a name for a graduate. In the monastic system we believe that to graduate as a Geshe is to create the karmic imprints to take rebirth in Shambhala. “Ge” means “virtue” and “she” means “knowing.” Geshe thus means one who knows virtue, one who knows what should be practiced and what should be abandoned.

There are four levels of Geshe degrees categorized under the set criteria of a Gelugpa university – Lharam, Tsokram,Rigram, and Lingse. To qualify for the monastic degree of Geshe, the student must undergo the vast and extensive traditional monastic studies on the five major treatises of Buddhist philosophical texts [The Perfection of Wisdom (as elaborated upon by Maitreya in the Abhisamayalamkara; Chandrakirti’s commentary on Nagarjuna’s root text on Madhyamaka; Dharmakirti’s Pramanavartika – Compendium on Valid Cognition; Vasubhandu’s Abhidharmakosha; andVinaya – studies in monastic discipline].

The specific commentaries on these five treatises which are studied are not fixed. Some read more and some read less. It depends on how enthusiastic is the student. It also depends on the university. To enable a clearer understanding of the theories put forth in the treatises, the monasteries useYigchas, mainly collections of chosen commentaries that are similar to textbooks.

According to the Sera Je monastic study system, a minimum of seventeen year’s study is required. The best students who are able to meet the required standards are then granted the privileged eligibility to study for the Lharam Geshe degree. Only the students who get into the first and second divisions are allowed to go for examination. For the Geshe Lharampa degree a further six years of study is needed prior to examination – a total of at least twenty-three years of rigorous study. When it is time for examinations, the three main Gelug monsteries of Sera, Drepung, and Ganden hold their exams together. …"

Från Fpmt's hemsida:

 "Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible"   H.H Dalai Lama

2015-10-06 13:49 #1 av: Fredrik1

Övriga titlar inom Tibetansk buddhism:

"Venerable: A title of respect applied to those who are ordained. The Tibetan equivalent is the word Kushok.

Ani: Ani is Tibetan for “nun.” The Tibetan for monk is “trapa.”

…la: The suffix “la” is a term of respect which can be affixed to the end of a title, as in “Ani-la,” or “Geshe-la,” or can be affixed to the end of a personal name, as in “Mindrol-la,” or “Tenzin-la.”

Guru: A Sanskrit word which means “spiritual teacher.”

Lama: A Tibetan word which literally translates as “heavy with qualities.” It is the Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word “guru.” In some Tibetan Buddhist traditions, the title of “lama” may be bestowed after a designated period of study and retreat. In other traditions, the title is applied informally by a more senior teacher to one qualified to lead students on the spiritual path.

Rinpoche: A Tibetan word which means “precious one.” This title is applied at the end of the teacher’s name. In most cases, the title is bestowed upon one who has been recognized as the reincarnation of a great teacher. “Rinpoche” is occasionally given as a title of respect to living teachers who were not formally recognized as reincarnate lamas while they were young but have demonstrated extraordinary qualities in this life.

Khensur: A title given to a retired monastery abbot.

Khenrinpoche: The honorific title for a current monastery abbot.

Kyabje: A highly honorific title historically given only rarely to very high lamas. His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama’s two tutors, Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche and Kyabje Ling Rinpoche, are two examples.

Khenpo: The equivalent of a Geshe degree for the Nyingma, Sakya, and Kagyu sects, requiring nine to sixteen years of intense study, depending on the school and tradition. In Gelug monasteries, the word “Khenpo” means abbot."

Från Fpmt's hemsida:

 "Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible"   H.H Dalai Lama

2015-10-20 22:57 #2 av: Fredrik1

En intressant film som visar synen på återfödsel av en lama i Tibet är dokumentärfilmen
Tulku - the movie.
Se länk nedan:

En annan film på samma tema är dokumentärfilmen
Unmistaken Child.
Se länk nedan:

 "Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible"   H.H Dalai Lama


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